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Products of this store will be shipped directly from Hong Kong to your country. Lebanon Change Country. Shop By Category. My Orders. Track Orders. Change Language. Arabic English. Important Links. Follow Us. App Download. US UK. The type of gestation affects the possible roles for parents. For birds however, dad can sit on the eggs and provide food for the chicks just as well as mum can.
Looking at a couple of egg examples, we can see there are different levels of involvement and different roles the parents can play. The spraying characid is a fish that lays its eggs out of water — the female leaps out of water and lays eggs, then the male leaps out and fertilises them, an act which is repeated until about eggs have been laid.
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For the next three days, dad has to stay with them and splash the eggs with his tail to keep them from drying out. For some leeches, parenting is the basic guarding eggs from predators but for African leeches, a kangaroo style approach has been adopted and they carry their young in a pouch, and for another type of leech, the young are glued to their parents tummy.
But moving onto mammals, we find the Dayak fruit bat where both mum and dad produce milk, taking shared responsibility for nursing their young. Djungarian hamster males are also devoted to their babies.
In addition to finding the food, the males help in the birth process, acting as a midwife and helping the pups out. They also open their airways and lick them clean, even going so far as to eat the placenta. Male marmosets also carry out a similar role and will go on to play an active role in childrearing. Hornbills are another devoted parent. The female climbs into a nest in a tree and seals up the entrance so that there is only space for her beak.
She is then reliant on her partner to bring her food whilst she incubates the chicks. Once they are born, the father must bring food for the whole family until it is time for them to emerge. Overall, the female spends as much as days cooped up in the nest. In many species where fatherhood is clear, males will kill offspring that is not there.
They also do this because without children around, the females get in season and thus he can get her pregnant and have children of his own. In coot and moorhen families, who have a large number of chicks at once, parents tend to feed the closest mouth, but if one chick becomes particularly demanding, the parents will try and discourage it by picking it up and shaking it, sometimes killing it. In some animals, a male having a mistress can lead to the death of the children, the ultimate in wicked stepmothers!
Whilst an extreme example, siblingcide is not uncommon in the animal kingdom. In many invertebrates, cannibalism is the way to get rid of your pesky brothers and sisters and thus not only do you get a good meal, you also guarantee increased access to resources going forward. Whilst not so extreme, eagles and hyenas also kill their siblings, although they wait until after birth. Of course there are many other interesting births and parenting techniques in the animal kingdom and I could never do any more than scrape the surface here but if these exmaples have whet your appetite, try checking out some of the links below and look into seahorses , that well known fully involved dad!
Sex in the animal kingdom is vastly more exciting than much of human sex. Just look at the praying mantis — she literally eats her mate! A male bowerbird will build an elaborate bower to entice a female. Other creatures might identify an appropriate male through song or scent or via chemical signals in urine markers. A male will fight for a beach and then mate with all the females on it.
see Whether they want to or not. Some creatures will even use electricity to try and attract a suitable mate. In different species, what makes an attractive mate differs. In the orangutan world, a male who shares is important because males can be coercive and sexually violent towards females. If none of this convinces you of the complex nature of animal sex, perhaps you should check out the leopard slugs mating process, of which there is a handy youtube video. A big issue with breeding in captivity has been trying to pair up same sex pandas and expecting baby pandas…. This is not the case.
And biologically it makes sense. For some males, a gift can entice the female and, in those species, it makes a lot of sense for the female to play the field! When it comes to sex organs, the animal world is also pretty diverse. Opossoms have bifurcated penises and vaginas which can accommodate these. The female spotted hyena is the only known mammal with no external vaginal opening, instead they have to urinate, copulate and give birth through the pseudo-penis… Painful! Looking to the males of the world, we find a beetle with a spiny penis and ducks with corkscrew penises and females with corkscrew vaginas of course.
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Just think, a kg human would be walking around with 14kg of testicles, which would be mighty uncomfortable. But if you thought that was mind blowing, wait till you hear about the Drosophila bifurca , or to you and me, a kind of fly. The male produces 6cm sperm, more than 20 times the length of the male!
There are also those animals that never have penis in vagina sex.
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For example, African mouthbrooder cichlids reproduce orally. Males will approach a female who then opens her mouth, which is where she carries her eggs, the male then sprays the eggs with sperm and fertilises them. Females will carry the eggs in her mouth until they hatch…. Despite being very sexual, they engage in something called tele-sex where sperm is produced in a specially adapted penis which then detaches from the body and swims off to find a female.
This penis then impregnants her and eventually the male regrows a new penis. In another post I will consider animal sexuality but as a taster of what is to come, consider the whiptail lizards — a species made up entirely of females. Instead of mating in the conventional way, or as a result of having both sets of organs, they make clones of themselves!
All of these weird and wonderful sounding sex lives just scratch the surface of how animals reproduce. But that would end up being a book in itself. The books were written at different times and whilst only 60 odd years apart, our knowledge of the sea and her inhabitants has changed a lot. Because of these differences, I am not seeking to compare the writings.
Instead I want to look at the strengths of both of them and try to unpick what makes them good examples of nature writing. There are some obvious starting points which both have in common, crucially I think, is the scientific knowledge to write about their topic. Carson writes in a lyrical, poetic fashion, conveying her love of the sea through her enthusiastic choice of language.
Under the Sea Wind uses narratives which are interwoven in a non linear form, instead cycling through the year much as nature herself does. She focuses on particular species, and by doing so she is essentially creating biological biographies for her characters and succeeds in bringing them to live despite the limitations imposed by choosing a non verbal cast.
She also uses human language, such as talking about what food a fish loved best or that another fish had changed her winter plumage. This is nudging towards anthropomorphism which is not highly thought of in scientific communities but it does make the animal characters more relatable and Carson seems cautious about over humanising her characters. When it comes to language, Carson has a skill which lets her synthesise beauty and knowledge and still maintain a poetic voice. She mixes a scientific fact based language with descriptive adjectives and nouns and in doing so, she provides specific, objective information with aesthetic details.
Somewhere I read that in writing about the sea, Carson aims to help her readers fall in love with it as much as she has. In Under The Sea Wind she introduces us to the creatures we come to love and in The Sea Around Us, she guides us to a deeper relationship with the sea itself.