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Proper diagnostic testing is a crucial tool to determine if TBI has occurred and the severity of the condition. Radiologic studies are also utilized to diagnose Traumatic Brain Injury. Computerized Tomography CT Scan is the preferred radiological test in the emergency setting. It is quick, accurate, and widely available. Treatment-The best treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury is prevention. Education is the best prevention.

The Time Heads Concise History of Classic Doctor Who

Athletes must wear proper headgear, motor vehicle drivers and passengers must wear seatbelts, and employers must make sure they provide a safe work environment. Once TBI has occurred and is diagnosed, there are various ways to treat the condition depending on the severity. Long term care may require physical therapy, cognitive rehabilitation, and occupational therapy. Jeff J.

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Mollins has been practicing in Downtown Brooklyn for over 25 years. He specializes in the diagnosis, treatment, and documentation of injuries sustained in accidents.

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In his career, Dr. Mollins has treated countless patients injured in accidents work related, automobile, slip and falls, construction, etc. Mollins performs a careful, thorough history and a comprehensive neurological and orthopedic physical examination. If TBI is suspected, he will immediately refer that patient to a Board Certified workers compensation certified neurologist specifically skilled, specializing, in the diagnosis and treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury. Any patient that has sustained head trauma can be confident that Dr.

Mollins has the knowledge and expertise to enable that patient to achieve wellness as quickly as possible. Jeff Mollins Dr. Dec 6. Search for:. When Emerson, after reading a manuscript of Leaves of Grass , famously wrote to its author, "I greet you at the beginning of a great career," the letter was addressed in care of the Fowlers.

In the book itself, the Fowlers' influence is clear: "Who are you indeed who would talk or sing of America? Edgar Allan Poe also regularly wove phrenological concepts into his work, even employing cranial descriptions in an series of sketches of New York literary figures. Of William Cullen Bryant, he wrote, the "forehead is broad, with prominent organs of Ideality. Herman Melville's Moby Dick even offers a lengthy albeit mocking phrenological description of the great whale. Because phrenological theory espoused the idea of perfectibility, social reformers quickly latched onto it. Horace Mann regarded phrenology as the greatest discovery of the age.

The Fowlers themselves became vocal advocates of reform and self-improvement, sometimes through advice on the proper phrenological choice of a career, but also with regard to education, temperance, even prison reform. Of course, there were always skeptics--not least of them, Mark Twain, who recounted with horror that Fowler had found on his skull "a cavity" where humor ought to be. John Quincy Adams is said to have wondered how two phrenologists could look each other in the eye without laughing.

But phrenology sailed on, pretty much unscathed, and until the turn of the century, continued to have an enormous impact on the public's ideas about the mind. So pervasive was it that as late as , the editors of the Encyclopaedia Britannica , wanting to debunk it in the name of reason not to mention common sense , felt compelled to publish a detailed, seven-page refutation of it.

Gall's "so called organs," the Britannica declared, "were for the most part identified on slender grounds. By the 20th century, phrenology had lost any shred of scientific authority, except among a few diehards. But the Britannica had included in its lengthy attack a perceptive prediction: "Based, like many other artificial philosophies, on an admixture of assumption and truth, certain parts will survive and become incorporated into scientific psychology, while the rest will in due course come to be relegated to the limbo of effete heresies.

And so it proved. Though phrenology fell into deserved disrepute, modern scientists note that in some ways it was remarkably prescient. Boring wrote that "it is almost correct to say that scientific psychology was born of phrenology, out of wedlock with science. It had, after all, an understanding that physiological characteristics of the brain influence behavior and — conversely — that behavior can alter our very physiology. Of course, today scientists look at changes in neurochemistry and synaptic connections rather than "brain organs," but the principle is the same.

Phrenologists also reckoned that the mind is not unitary but composed of independent faculties. Their ideas — in other guises — have since given birth to the field of cognitive psychology, which breaks down mental functions such as reading into separate faculties letter recognition, sentence comprehension and so forth. Perhaps most interesting is the idea that different mental functions are localized in the brain. One of the first scientists to provide evidence of this localization of function was a contemporary of the Fowlers. In , Paul Broca, a French surgeon and anthropologist, showed that damage to a particular region of the brain — only about four square centimeters in size — can make a person unable to speak coherently, without affecting his or her comprehension of others' speech.

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According to Antonio Damasio, a neuroscientist at the University of Iowa College of Medicine, the phrenologists were, in many ways, "quite astounding" for their time. One of the most dramatic cases he has studied provides a suggestive link between 19th-century phrenology and modern neuroscience. It involves a New England railroad worker named Phineas Gage who, in , suffered an amazing accident: an iron bar, more than an inch in diameter, was thrust by an explosion through his brain, entering his head under his cheekbone and exiting at the top of his skull.

That he lived was astounding; even more remarkable, his reasoning and language were left entirely intact. What changed, however, was his temperament.

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Previously a responsible, gentle man, Gage was now argumentative, irresponsible and prone to cursing so vilely that women were warned not to remain in his presence. Using Gage's actual skull as a guide, Damasio and his wife, Hanna, a fellow neuroscientist, recently created a 3-D computer image of Gage's injury. The bar's trajectory, they found, had damaged the same region of the brain as had been injured in patients of theirs who exhibited similar behavior. Back in , the diagnosis was only somewhat different.

Along with all the doctors and journalists who came to observe him, Gage was visited by Nelson Sizer, a phrenology expert and associate of the Fowlers. The meeting provides further evidence that faulty logic can sometimes lead to correct conclusions. After comparing Gage's exit wound with his phrenological charts, Sizer determined — and accurately, no doubt- that Gage's change in demeanor, his violence and rudeness, were due not to damage in the prefrontal cortex but to an injury "in the neighborhood of Benevolence and the front part of Veneration.

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